Graders are multi-purpose road construction equipment used for general development and for road maintenance. The grader can be utilized for leveling and scarifying, mixing and spreading, trenching and land grading. It might likewise be utilized for light striping activities yet it isn’t proposed for substantial excavation.
- Avoid wet and muddy condition because the traction decreases to the maximum extent.
- Eliminate turns if it works less than 1000 feet. To do more passes in such situations reversing the grader is more efficient.
- Avoid unnecessary passes if it is possible.
- Proper tire inflation is very important to gain more efficiency.
- Proper working speed.- The operation should be performed as fast as possible
ASPHALT MIXING PLANT:
These can vary in size depending on the size of the road construction job in question. Asphalt mixing plant is utilized to make materials that are needed while constructing the top layer of the roads. According to the prerequisites of the street, the plant is utilized to make a blend of cement, stone, soil, minerals, fills and more.
ROAD ROLLER MACHINE:
Roller machine is utilized to push down the black-top that is set down in layers. Rollers can be rubber tire rollers, twofold drum black-top rollers or mix rollers and the sort of roller utilized is controlled by the blend utilized as a part of a road project.
Excavators are other highly versatile machines in the sense; they can be equipped with several different types of front-end operating attachments, which are easily interchangeable. Excavators are generally available on three types of mountings. Crawler, Truck, and self-propelled Tyre Mountings. The common attachments available are Shovel, Hoe, Dragline, and Clamshell- type Bucket.
This equipment is mainly used for material handling. The following works can be done with this machine-
- Lowering materials to hopper
- To lift and haul around short distance
- Light and medium excavation and dozing
- Land clearing
This is the most versatile earth moving tool as it accomplishes various tasks like pushing, towing, ripping etc. Basically dozer blades consist of a moldboard, cutting edges, end bits and blade arms connecting the blade to the tractor. Blades vary in size and type Straight blade, Angle blade, and Special purpose blade are the main types. Dozers are also equipped with rippers at the rear of the tractor. They are used to loosening the hard soil.
Application of Bulldozers:
- Land clearing: – Bushes and small trees are removed by lowering the blade a few inches into the ground to strike and cut the roots. This is usually down at the lower speed ranges.
- Stripping: – It consists of removal of topsoil that is not usable as fill martial or as a stable sub-grade.
- Sidehill cutting: – Always start all side hill cuts from the top to work down with the cut. Working downhill gives the advantage of gravity.
- Backfilling: – Dozers are used to backfill by pushing material directly ahead of the machine over embankments into ditches or directly against the structure. This job may be performed either by making the blade straight or angle.
- Dozing Rocks and Frozen ground: – Rocks are generally removed by using one corner of the blade so that full power is applied to the shorter section of the blade. Frozen ground is broken by tilting the blade to get better penetration.
- Ditching: – Though this machine is not ideal for this purpose ditching may be done by straight blade by working at a right angle to the length of the ditch.
- Spreading: – This is done by straight blade dozer so that the material is drifted under the cutting edge directly.